Case Series and Case Reports:

Case Series and Case Reports:

These consist either of collections of reports on the treatment of individual patients with the same condition, or of reports on a single patient.

Case Control Studies:

Patients who already have a certain condition are compared with people who do not.

Cohort Studies:

Also called longitudinal studies, involve a case-defined population who presently have a certain exposure and/or receive a particular treatment that are followed over time and compared with another group
who are not affected by the exposure under investigation.

Randomized Controlled Studies:

This is a study in which 1) There are two groups, one treatment group and one control group. The treatment group receives the treatment under investigation, and the control group receives either no treatment (placebo) or standard treatment. 2) Patients are randomly assigned to all groups.

Double-Blind Method:

A type of randomized controlled clinical trial/study in which neither medical staff/physician nor the patient knows which of several possible treatments/therapies the patient is receiving.


Meta-analysis is a systematic, objective way to combine data from many studies, usually from randomized controlled clinical trials, and arrive at a pooled estimate of treatment effectiveness and statistical

Systematic Reviews:

A systematic review is a comprehensive survey of a topic that takes great care to find all relevant studies of the highest level of evidence, published and unpublished, assess each study, synthesize the findings from individual studies in an unbiased, explicit and reproducible way and present a balanced and impartial summary of the findings with due consideration of any flaws in the evidence. In this way it can be used for the evaluation of either existing or new technologies and practices.

A systematic review is more rigorous than a traditional literature review and attempts to reduce the influence of bias. In order to do this, a systematic review follows a formal process:

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